4.1 conclusions summary per chapter

findings and trends  from 3.1:

3.3.1 : retrofitting all existing houses for ZEB operation creates a huge rebound effect in materials application. Such that it is unavoidable to reduce heated areas and limit materials input for retrofit .

3.3.2 to avoid an end of pipe approach and rebound effects in retrofitting houses, (see 3.3.1),  it is more wise to put all effort in reforming the industry first, and make industry produce 0-embodied energy/ 0-CO2 materials and products.

3.3.3 : a shift for low impact materials is urgently needed, to focus at biobased building/retrofit. The strategy required is comparable to that of food: vegetarian building.

findings and trends  from 3.2

3.2.1 : operation energy seems to be of lower importance than the embodied energy of (new) buildings.

3.2.1 : Drastically reducing the quality of the built environment or massively using wood/bamboo in the built environment seem to be the two unavoidable solutions.

3.2.1 :   new construction for the global need should be based on renewable ie biobased resources.

findings and trends from  3.3

3.3.1 : to be able to live within natural balanced  CO2 emissions schemes, household energy demand will have to be reduced significantly

3.3.2 : Some of the measures required to bring energy demand within balanced CO2 managed levels, are: reduced living area per capita, no cooling , and limit the power consumption to around 500kWh /cap-year


more to follow with new entries.


carbon budgets explored